Potassium Restriction in CKD

When you have kidney disease, your kidneys cannot remove extra potassium in the right way, and too much potassium can stay in your blood. When you have too much potassium in your blood, it is called hyperkalemia, or high potassium. Having too much potassium in your blood can be dangerous

Why are CKD patients advised to restrict potassium in diet?

Potassium is an important mineral in the body that is needed for the proper functioning of muscles and nerves and to keep the heart beat regular.

Normally, the level of potassium in body is balanced by eating potassium containing foods and removal of excess potassium in the urine. Removal of excess potassium in the urine may be inadequate in a patient with chronic kidney disease and can lead to the accumulation of a high level of potassium in the blood (a condition known as hyperkalemia).

The risk of hyperkalemia is less in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis compared to those on hemodialysis.

The risk differs in both groups because the process of dialysis is continuous in peritoneal dialysis while it is intermittent in hemodialysis.

High potassium levels can cause severe muscle weakness or an irregular heart rhythm that can be dangerous.

When potassium is very high, the heart can stop beating unexpectedly and cause sudden death. High potassium levels can be life threatening without noticeable manifestations or symptoms (and therefore it is known as a silent killer).To avoid serious consequences of high potassium, CKD patients are advised to restrict potassium in diet.

What is normal potassium level in blood? When is it considered high?

The normal serum potassium (level of potassium in blood) is 3.5 mEq/L to 5.0 mEq/L.

When the serum potassium is 5.0 to 6.0 mEq/L, dietary potassium needs to be limited.

When the serum potassium is greater than 6.0 mEq/L, active medical intervention is needed to reduce it.

A serum potassium greater than 7.0 mEq/L is life threatening and needs urgent treatment such as emergency dialysis.

Classification of food according to potassium content:

To maintain proper control of potassium in blood, food intake must be modified as per the doctor’s advice. On the basis of potassium contents, foods are classified into three different groups (high, medium, and low potassium containing foods).

High potassium = More than 200 mg/ 100 gms of food

Medium potassium = 100 to 200 mg/ 100 gms of food

Low potassium = Less than 100 mg/ 100 gms of food

Foods with high potassium content

Fruits: Fresh apricot, ripe banana, chico, fresh coconut, custard apple, gooseberry, guava, kiwi fruit, ripe mango, oranges, papaya, peach, pomegranate and plum

Vegetables: Broccoli, cluster beans, coriander, drumstick, mushroom, raw papaya, potato, pumpkin, spinach, sweet potato, tomatoes and yam

Dry fruits: Almond, cashew nut, dates, dry figs, raisins and walnut.

Cereals: wheat flour

Legumes: Red and black beans and mung (monggo) beans

Non-vegetarian food: Fish like anchovy and mackerel; shell fish like prawns, lobster and crabs; and beef

Drinks: Coconut water, condensed milk, buffalo milk, cow milk, chocolate drinks, fresh fruit juices, soup, beer, wine and many aerated drinks

Miscellaneous: Chocolate, chocolate cake, chocolate ice cream, Lona salt (salt substitute), potato chips and tomato sauce

Foods with Medium Potassium Content

Fruits : ripe cherries, grapes, lychees, pear, sweet lime and watermelon

Vegetables: Beet root, raw banana, bitter gourd, cabbage, carrot, celery, cauliflower, French beans, okra (ladies finger), raw mango, onion, radish, green peas, sweet corn and safflower leaves

Cereals: Barley, general purpose flour, noodles made from wheat flour, rice flakes (pressed rice) and wheat vermicelli

Legumes: red and black beans and mung (monggo) beans

Non-vegetarian food: Liver

Foods with Low Potassium Content

Fruits : Apple, blackberries, lemon, pineapple and strawberries

Vegetables : Bottle gourd, broad beans, capsicum, cucumber, garlic, lettuce, green peas, raw mango and pointed gourd

Cereals : Rice, rava and wheat semolina

Legumes : Green peas

Non-vegetarian food : Beef, lamb, pork, chicken and egg

Drinks : Coca-cola, coffee, lemonade, lime juice in water, and soda

Miscellaneous : Cloves, dried ginger, honey, mint leaves, mustard, nutmeg, black pepper and vinegar

Kidney …The Important Organ

Our kidneys play many important roles keeping our bodies in balance. They remove waste and toxins, excess water from the bloodstream, which is carried out of the body in urine. They helped to make hormones to produce red blood cells, and they turn vitamin D into its active form, so it’s usable in the body.

Where is kidney located in our body?

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of your spine. Healthy kidneys filter about a half cup of blood every minute, removing wastes and extra water to make urine.

What are the functions of the kidney?
The primary function of the kidney is to make urine and purify the blood. Each kidney removes waste materials, and other chemicals which are not required by the body. Most important functions of the kidney are described below.

Removal of waste products
Purification of blood by removal of waste products is the most important function of the kidney.
The food that we consume contains protein. Protein is necessary for the growth and repair of the body. But as protein is utilized by the body it produces waste products. Accumulation and retention of these waste products is similar to retaining poison inside the body. Each kidney filters blood, and toxic waste products which are eventually excreted in the urine.
Creatinine and urea are two important waste products that can easily be measured in the blood. Their “values” in blood tests reflects the function of the kidney. When both the kidneys fail, value of creatinine and urea will be high in blood test.

Removal of excess fluid
The second most important function of the kidney is the regulation of fluid balance by excreting excess amount of water as urine while retaining the necessary amount of water in the body, that is essential for living .When the kidneys, fail they lose the ability of removing this excess amount of water. Excess water in the body leads to swelling.
Balance minerals and chemicals
The kidneys play another important role of regulating minerals and chemicals like sodium, potassium, hydrogen, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and bicarbonate and maintains normal composition of body fluid.
Changes in the sodium level can affect person’s mental state, while changes in the potassium level can have serious adverse effects on the rhythm of the heart as well as functioning of the muscles. Maintenance of normal level of the calcium and phosphorus is essential for healthy bones and teeth.
Control of blood pressure
The kidneys produce different hormones (renin, angiotensin, aldosterone, prostaglandin etc) which help regulate water and salt in the body, which plays vital roles in the maintenance of good blood pressure control. Disturbances in hormone production and regulation of salt and water in a patient with kidney failure can lead to high blood pressure.
Red blood cells production
Erythropoietin is another hormone produced in the kidneys, it plays an important role in the production of red blood cells (RBC). During kidney failure, production of erythropoietin is decreased, which in turn leads to decreased production of RBC resulting in low hemoglobin (anemia). This is the reason why in patients with kidney failure, the hemoglobin count does not improve despite supplementation with iron and vitamin preparations.
To maintain healthy bones
The kidneys convert vitamin D into its active form which is essential for the absorption of calcium from food, growth of the bones and teeth, and keep the bones strong and healthy. During kidney failure, decreased active vitamin D leads to decreased, growth of bones and they also become weak.

Growth retardation may be sign of kidney failure in children.

How is blood purified and urine formed?
In the process of blood purification, the kidneys retain all necessary substances and selectively remove excess fluid, electrolytes and waste products.

Let us understand this complex and amazing process of urine formation.

Did you know that every minute, 1200 ml of blood enters the kidneys for purification, which is 20% of the total blood pumped by the heart? So in one day, 1700 liters of blood is purified!
This process of purification occurs in small filtering units known as nephrons.
Each kidney contains about one million nephrons, and each nephron is made up of glomerulus and tubules.
Glomeruli are filters with very tiny pores with the characteristic of selective filtration. Water and small-sized substances are easily filtered through them. But larger-sized red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, protein etc. cannot pass through these pores. Therefore such cells are normally not seen in the urine of healthy people.
The kidney’s chief function is to remove waste and harmful products and excess water in the form of urine.
The first step of urine formation occurs in the glomeruli, where 125 ml per minute of urine is filtered. It is quite astonishing that in 24 hours, 180 liters of urine is formed. It contains not only waste products, electrolytes and toxic substances, but also glucose and other useful substances.
Each kidney performs the process of reabsorption with great precision. Out of 180 liters of fluid that enters the tubules, 99% of fluid is selectively reabsorbed and only the remaining 1% of fluid is excreted in the form of urine.
By this intelligent and precise process, all essential substances and 178 liters of fluid are reabsorbed in the tubules, whereas 1-2 liters of fluids, waste products, and other harmful substances are excreted.
Urine formed by the kidneys flow to the ureters, and passes through the urinary bladder and is finally excreted out through the urethra.
Can there be variation in the volume of urine in a person with healthy kidney?

The amount of water intake and atmospheric temperature are major factors which determine the volume of urine that a normal person makes.
When water intake is low, urine tend to be concentrated and its volume is decreased (about 500 ml) but when a large volume of water is consumed, more urine is formed.
During the summer months, because of perspiration caused by high ambient temperature, the volume of urine decreases.

During winter months it is the other way round – low temperature, no perspiration, and more urine.
In a person with a normal intake of water, if the volume of urine is less than 500 ml or more than 3000 ml, it could indicate that the kidneys need closer attention and further investigation

Solanum surattense Burm.f/कंटकारी

Family Name : Solanaceae

English Name: Yellow berried night shade

Sanskrit : Kantakari, Shweta, Kshudra, Chandrahasa, Lakshmana,kshetradootika,


Marathi : Bhuitingani

Bengali: Kantikari

Kannada: Malluchi, Ragul

Telugu: Kuda

Dravidi: Kharjarah


Kateri called chhoti katabali, is described here as it has more medicinal value. It is found all over India. Its plant spreads like a bush all over the ground. It gives the appearance as if a female cobra with its body covered with thorny sheet is loudly proclaming ‘do not touch me’.

Actually the plant has so many thorns that it is very hard to touch it.


Kateri is a shiny green perennial bush. It is found in a diameter of 1-4 ft around its root. It is shiny green in colour with yellow 1½ inch long or slightly smaller thorns. The leaves are 4-6 inch long with teeth or torn edges..

Chemical Composition

The ash of the five parts of the plant contains nitrate, carobonate and sulphate. The five parts contain fat and a resinous substance and dayosazenin.

Fruits contain solesoniz and seeds contain 19.3 percent greenish yellow oil.


Being warm, it causes sweating.

1.It cures kapha and vata disorders.

2.Being bitter, pungent and warm, it promotes digestion.

3.It is beneficial in curing low digestive power and pitta disorders.

4.It purifies blood, cures swelling and normalizes blood pressure.

5.It cures cough and is beneficial for bronchitis and bronchial asthma, throat problems and hiccoughs.

6. It eradicates histamine from air passages and lungs.

It makes the voice sharp-as that of tiger. Hence, it is known as vyaghri.


Medicinal usage:


Take 20-50 ml juice of its leaves and mix honey in it. Use this to massage. Within a few days it kills the micro organisms and skin becomes soft. It enhances the growth of new hair.


1. Give ½ to 1 gm powder of its flowers with honey. It cures all types of cough in children.

2. In case of cough, give 15-20 gm juice of its leaves or in 50-60 gm decoction of its root, add 2 gm small and 250 pepper a rock salt and give this to the patient

3. Give its 10-20 gm decoction with 2 gm peepal powder mixed in it. Give this to the patient 2-3 times a day. It cures cough completely.

Vomiting Give 10-20 gm juice of its root with 2 teaspoonful honey. It controls vomiting.

Prepare its decoction with Tinospora and give 10-20 gm of it with honey to the patient. It cures swelling, bronchitis, fever and vomiting.

Weakened state of digestive power:

Take equal quantities of its juice along with juice of Tinospora. In 1 kg of this gain juice add 1 kg ghee and cook the mixture till only ghee is lass left. Strain the solution. Give 10 gm of this ghee to the gm patient. It cures dyspepsia and cough due to vata.

Stomach disorders:

Take off the seeds from its flowers and then boil them in butter milk with some salt. Let them dry. Now again soak them in butter milk for the whole night and let them dry during the day.

Repeat this for 4-5 days. Fry them in ghee and give to the patient. It cures stomach pain and pitta disorders.


In case of stones, dysuria and ascites, mix equal quantities of powder of root of small and large plants. Give this to the patient with 2 teaspoonful curd for seven and days.

Dysuria: Mix 10-20 ml juice with butter milk. Strain the solution through cloth and give this to the patient. It cures the obstruction in urination.Therefore, it should not be taken without consulting with a doctor.

Kantakari should be taken under the supervision of your doctor.

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Jau/Barley The Healthy

Barley, (Hordeum vulgare), cereal plant of the grass family Poaceae and its edible grain. Grown in a variety of environments, barley is the fourth largest grain crop globally, after wheat, rice, and corn.

Barley is commonly used in breads, soups, stews, and health products, though it is primarily grown as animal fodder and as a source of malt for alcoholic beverages, especially beer.
As per Ayurveda, Barley has Rechana (laxative) property which helps to provide relief from constipation when added to the diet.

Here we will tell you some such benefits from barley water, without knowing which you can overcome many problems:

#Weight loss

Is barley good for losing weight?

Barley may reduce hunger and promote feelings of fullness — both of which may lead to weight loss over time. Barley lessens hunger largely through its high fiber content. …Summary Barley contains soluble fiber, which reduces hunger and enhances feelings of fullness. It may even promote weight loss

#Cholesterol level is low
Due to weight gain, cholesterol level also starts to increase and diseases like breathlessness are also faced. To avoid this, you can drink the water from barley, for this, clean the barley and put it in water and keep it for 2-3 hours. After this, mix barley water in 3-4 cups of water and boil it well, making sure that you boil it on low heat. 2 cups of barley water per day can remove making sure that you boil it on low heat. 2 cups of barley water per day can remove many diseases

#Controls diabetes

In the problem of diabetes, a lot of care has to be taken about food and barley water is a great recipe in such a situation. Adopting home remedies does not cause any problems, rather barley water helps in controlling the sugar levels in the body. If someone in your household has diabetes, then you should definitely consume barley water and control the sugar level.

#Beneficial for the digestive system
If your immune system is poor or you have stomach ache problems for the next day, then feel free to drink barley water. If immunity does not increase, your body soon starts catching diseases. To improve the digestive system, drinking barley water at least once is very important.

#Barley water makes skin glowing
Facial stains spoil your beauty, instead of using beauty products, you should adopt home remedies.

Role of Barley in kidney stones

The Vitamin B6 and magnesium in barley helps break down the masses of toxic calcium Oxalate (primary cause for stones) in the kidney. –Dietary fibre in barley reduces the amount of calcium that is excreted by the body through urine, restoring renal health and cleansing the kidneys
Is barley good for kidney stone?

Is barley good for gallstones also ?
The type of insoluble fiber found in barley may prevent the formation of gallstones, helping your gallbladder function normally and reducing your risk of surgery.

Urine problems will be overcome
The beta-gluten present in it helps to flush out the toxic substances from the body, which is very important for your health. Barley water does not allow piles and constipation, it keeps the intestines clean, which reduces the chances of stomach cancer.

Is barley better than rice?
Barley is richer in fibers, proteins, B complex vitamins, magnesium, potassium, iron. It has a lower glycemic index, is higher in carbohydrates, and is almost 3 times higher in calories. Compared to barley, rice is richer in folate. Overall, barley has a better nutritional profile compared to rice.

Barley can be used to make interesting breakfast recipes

Barley Oatmeal
Just like you cook oats, boil barley in water and add to a bowl of milk, honey, cinnamon, fruits, nuts and seeds. Boiled barley is mushy enough to be made into sweet and soothing oatmeal.

  • Barley upma
    Use broken barley or roasted barley flour instead of sooji to make upma. Flavour it the usual way by adding veggies and spices of your choice. Barley upma will taste just as good as your regular South Indian-special sooji upma.
    Barley Daliya
  • This savoury porridge is made with soaked and crushed barley mixed with boiled chickpeas, onions, garlic and some common spices. Remember to soak barley a night before. Click here for the full recipe.
  • Barley Pancake
    Turn your favourite breakfast pancakes healthier by replacing all-purpose flour with barley and make the pancake batter as usual with milk, eggs, honey, baking powder and a pinch of salt.
    A topping of fruits or maple syrup will make it taste even better
About Ayurveda Sankalp

Welcome to Ayurdeva Sankalp Clinic India. We were established in the year 2018 with a mission of spreading awareness in Ayurveda and managing chronic obstinate lifestyle disorder. Ayurveda sankalp Clinic was established in the year 2020 with a view to provide people a holistic approach towards preventing and curing diseases through Ayurveda.